Archive for the ‘Windows 7’ Category


In my previous post, I listed the registry change to get sent email into the shared mailbox sent folder; otherwise it ends up in the sent folder of the primary email account.  Turns out the very same thing happens to deleted items, but there is also a registry key that will fix that.

  1. Close Outlook if it is running.
  2. From the search bar in Windows 10, type regedit and then click on the result to run.  In Windows 7 click Run and type regedit then click OK. Or from Windows 8 search, type regedit and run it.
  3. Navigate to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Office\16.0\Outlook\Options\General.Note Office 2013 uses 15.0, Office 2010 uses 14.0, 2007 12.0 instead of 15.0
  4. In the right hand pane, right-click and choose New DWORD.
  5. Type DelegateWastebasketStyle for the name and press enter.
  6. Right-click on the newly created entry and choose Modify.
  7. Enter 4 for the value.
  8. Exit regedit.
  9. Restart Outlook.

You are done.

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What is SkyDrive Pro vs. SkyDrive?

SkyDrive Pro is not to be confused with the free SkyDrive you can get at live.com.  What may be confusing to you is that they have similar names, and you might even use the same login name and passwords to access each of them.  But that is just co-incidence, much in the same way that the user name and password you might use to log onto your bank account and a news web site might be the same but those sites have no real relationship to one another.

So what is SkyDrive Pro?  It is a 25GB storage space that you get to via Office 365, but unlike he “Team Site”, this is a personal site just for you and based on your user logon to Office 365.  All the things, or at least most of them, that can be done on the team site – like creating libraries, lists, etc. – can be done on the SkyDrive Pro site.  But the data you store there is visible and accessible only by your logon.  (There is a way to store data so that all other Office 365 users in your organization can see it, but will discuss that shortly).

 SkyDrive Pro 2013 in the Office 2013 Suite of Programs

There is an important difference about SkyDrive Pro from the Team Site besides exclusively belonging to you.  There is an Office 2013 program, SkyDrive Pro interestingly enough, that does two things:

SkyDrive Pro 2013 makes a local copy of your Office 365 SkyDrive data so you can access it even when you are not online. SkyDrive Pro 2013 automatically synchronizes the data between your local copy and Office 365.  Update it in either place and the changes are replicated.

And yes, if you were wondering, you can use SkyDrive Pro 2013 on multiple computers.  Let’s say you are using it on your office and home office computers.  You update the local copy on your home office computer, and that replicates to Office 365 in the cloud.  That in turn replicates from Office 365 to the local copy on your office computer.

 Setting Up SkyDrive Pro 2013

If you already have Office 2013 Professional Plus installed (from Office 365, e.g.) then SkyDrive Pro 2013 is already installed on your computer.  You might want to pin this program to your task bar for easy access.  In Windows 7, click on the Start menu, then All Programs, scroll down to Microsoft Office 2013 and expand it, right click on SkyDrive Pro and click on Pin to Task Bar.  In Windows 8, swipe to the lower right hand corner of the screen to bring up Charms, choose the Search Charm, and start typing “SkyDrive Pro 2013.”  As soon as it appears, right click on it and at the bottom of the screen, choose Pin to Taskbar.  Return to the desktop.

On the taskbar, click on the SkyDrive Pro 2013 icon to launch it.  The first time it runs, it will prompt you to synch files for the first time.  You may be prompted for a URL of the library to synch to, or that may already be filled out for you.  If it is filled out already, just click on Sync Now.

If you are prompted for a URL, then close the window and perform the following steps instead:

  1. Open Internet Explorer or FireFox or Chrome.
  2. Go to http://portal.microsoftonline.com, 
  3. Log onto your Office 365 account.
  4. On the horizontal navigation bar at the top of the next page, click on SkyDrive.
  5. When the SkyDrive site opens, click on Sync at the upper right just below the user name.

SkyDrive

You should see a small window open asking to Sync Now.  Select that.  Subsequently, a second small window may open asking you to choose an application in which Microsoft SkyDrive Pro appears.  Click on it and then click OK.  Briefly another small window may appear informing you that your computer is contacting the server, and finally another window that sync is preparing, then finally that it is ready and you can view your files.  Click Show my files to do so.

Subsequently when you click on the SkyDrive Pro icon, it will open the folder from your local hard disk.  You will note the location of this folder is C:\Users\<profilename<>\SkyDrive Pro where <profilename> is the name of the user profile you are logged on as.  Generally it will be your log on name and sometimes with the domain name added.

o365-2

Please note on the screen shot above both SkyDrive and SkyDrive Pro appear.  That is because I set up a personal SkyDrive account in addition to having an Office 365 account.  They are not the same thing even though the names are similar.  It is as though Drop Box had one account for personal and another named Drop the Box for something else.  Jeez.

Sharing Data with Others in Your Organization

Notice in the screenshot above “Shared with Everyone” folder.  Open that and place a file or folder there, and anyone can access it.  Otherwise, the files are private to your log on.  Pretty simple, eh?

 What is the SkyDrive Pro Folder?

What SkyDrive Pro 2013 does is create a local folder in the path specified above, and it also sets up an automatic synchronization between that folder and the SkyDrive SharePoint site in Office 365.  Recall that the SkyDrive site in Office 365 that you see when you log on to the portal is private!  It belongs to your Office 365 log on exclusively.  Coupled with SkyDrive Pro 2013, it does a bi-directional synchronization to SkyDrive Pro folder on your computer.  In other words, if you add, change or delete anything in the SkyDrive Pro folder on your computer, those changes are automatically replicated in the SkyDrive SharePoint site in Office 365.  Likewise, if you add, change or delete anything in that site, it is automatically replicated to your computer.

Note that you do not have to be connected to the Internet to access files, or add files, to the local SkyDrive Pro folder.  Once you are connected, replication in both directions takes place without you having to do anything.

This feature makes it perfect when you are using more than one computer: say your office computer, your home computer, and your laptop computer.  Set up SkyDrive Pro on each.  If you make changes on your laptop while traveling, for example, once you connect to the Internet, those changes are replicated to Office 365.  And Office 365 in turn will replicate them to the home and office computers.

 The SkyDrive Pro 2013 Folder

When you click on the SkyDrive Pro icon on the taskbar, or from File Explorer under Favorites, or by browsing to the folder location.  The contents of the folder will appear as in any other folder on your computer.  However, SkyDrive Pro adds a crucial piece of information.  An icon will appear just before the file or folder name.  The icon will be one of the three following ones:

  1. A green check mark.  This indicates the file has been successfully synchronized to Office 365.
  2. A circle with two curved arrows inside.  This indicates that the file is awaiting synchronization to Office 365.
  3. A red circle with a white “X” inside it.   This indicates there is an error synchronizing to Office 365. It is either a file type that cannot be uploaded to SharePoint, in which case you should not put it in SkyDrive Pro folder, or the file name is invalid.  Invalid file names contain characters like “%” or “&” and several others that are invalid in SharePoint.  Or the file name has consecutive “.”  Myfile..ppt, for example, is valid in Windows but not in SharePoint.  Change the file name to allow synchronization.

You can see the icons next to the file names on the screen shot I posted above.

 Using SkyDrive Pro

The first thing you should do is move all of your files in My Documents to SkyDrive Pro, then abandon completely storing or accessing anything from My Documents.  If you save documents on your desktop, do the same thing: move them to SkyDrive Pro and cease using your desktop for storage.  If you save your documents to another location, well you get the idea.  You can open My Documents, any other folder, and also SkyDrive Pro folder and simply drag things from one place to the other.

When you are saving a document, say from an email attachment or from an application like Word or Excel, simply browse to the SkyDrive Pro folder and save it there (or to a subfolder there).

 Why Go Through All that Trouble?

Just to state the obvious, it is NOT more trouble to save or access things from SkyDrive Pro than from any other location.  There is a modest, but simple, effort required to move everything from other locations to it though.

Consider these benefits:

  •  If something catastrophic happens to your computer – lost, stolen, hard disk crash, accidental erasure, etc. – you don’t lose any of your files.  A copy is at Office 365 and readily restored to any computer.
  • You can keep your files current and accessible on multiple computers you use.
  • You can access your files while traveling with no Internet connection.
  • You can rest assured that Office 365 is backed up, redundant and robust to protect your data.
  • SkyDrive at Office 365 supports version control, so if you screw up a file, you can readily restore the previous version and save the day.
  • If you don’t have any of your computers with you but have access to one, you can still get to all of your files by accessing them through the Office 365 portal.  And if that computer doesn’t have Office 2013 on it, you can use the Office Web Apps or Office on Demand at any time.

A Few More Things

You have an icon in the systray for SkyDrive Pro and another for Microsoft Office Upload Center (the latter is an orange circle with a large up-pointing arrow).  When files are synching, the SkyDrive Pro icon will have a green moving bar underneath it.  Hover your mouse over it and a popup will show how many remaining files are waiting for synch.  Open Upload Center to see any errors in uploading, such as unsupported file types or invalid file names.  File names must conform to SharePoint file name rules, so certain characters valid in Windows file names will not work in SharePoint.

Saving files, or opening existing files, from Office and other applications is quite simple and easy.  To open a file, for example, click on the SkyDrive Pro (or similarly named) icon under Favorites or open the SkyDrive Pro folder from SkyDrive 2013.  Browse to the file you want and click to open it.  To save a file, follow a similar strategy

Files are synched to Office 365 only when a file is closed after updating or adding.  Don’t depend on synching a file that remains open for days at a time.  A good example might be a QuickBooks file.  As long as you close it after daily use, it will synch to Office 365.  A better strategy might be to set up QuickBooks to backup the file on an automated schedule to your SkyDrive Pro site.  Once the backup is complete, it is synched to Office 365, giving you a local and a cloud-based backup.

You may recall that if you go offline, say taking your laptop or table while traveling, or because your Internet connection is down, you can make changes to your files on the local SkyDrive Pro folder and once connected to the Internet again, those changes will be replicated onto Office 365.  But here is a caution if you are using Office 2013 SkyDrive Pro (Office APP) on more than one computer:  If you make changes on one of those computers to the folder and don’t go online to synch them but instead make changes to the same files or folders on another computer, you will create a synch error or worse cause an overwrite to the changes on at least one of those computers.  In normal operation, I consider this unlikely, but sure as I write this someone will do it.

If you are using a Windows tablet device, such as a Surface Pro, remember that your local copy of your folder is going to be as large as the online store.  Since these table devices are solid state disks (SSD) and generally 32GB or 64GB for all your storage, including the OS and program files, you might run out of room.  In that case, consider moving older or seldom-used files to your Office 365 team site libraries.

Summary

SkyDrive Pro is a personal SharePoint site for each Office 365 user.  Coupled with Office 2013 SkyDrive Pro, a local folder under your user profile is used to store data which is automatically synched to the SharePoint site.  Used in place of My Documents, or some network share, it is an excellent and vastly superior way IMHO to have online or offline access to your files, to have automatic cloud backup, and access to them on multiple computers or simply through an Internet connection and browser when your own computer devices are not available.


I was pulling my hair out, wondering why the clock on client machines in a SBS 2011 domain were off about 5 minutes fast.  Surely the server time was the issue, and I kept resetting it only to see it go back to its five minutes fast setting again.  So I rolled up my sleeves, dug into all the command options of w332tm and registry settings, and they all looked fine.  My server was set to use time.windows.com.

Why didn’t this work?

I finally paid attention to the result of this command:

w32tm /query /status

I slapped my forehead and also did another command

w32tm /query /source to amplify the results I was looking for

Here is what I got

Since I had set the time server to time.windows.com, I was puzzled why that time server did not show up and what the heck was VM IC Time?  Almost instantly it hit me: the hyper-v SBS 2011machine was getting its time from the host, and my settings were not overriding that.

Sure enough, I looked at the host machine (not part of the domain) and it was not using an authoritative time server and was – gasp! – about 5 minutes fast.  A few simple things fixed it all.

On the Hyper-v Host

From either the control panel or time in systray, set the computer clock.  Click on the Internet Time tab and if it is not set to synchronize, click Change Settings…. In the dialogue box that appears, click the Synchronize box and leave the server as time.windows.com or change to another value.  Click update now button, then OK to close.  Click OK again.

On the SBS 2011 Server

Open a command prompt in elevated mode (run as administrator).  Enter this command

w32tm /resync

You should see the clock change to match the value on the hyper-v host machine.

On Client Machines

You will see the time change when the client machines follow the time synchronization schedule, but you can do it immediately if you want.  Use the procedure above for the SBS Server but on your client machines.

That’s it.

There’s Another Way……

This made me think, there’s gotta be another way to deal with this.  Sure enough, a bit of snooping led me to play with the hyper-v host settings, and here is a way to let your SBS 2011 hyper-v machine throw off the shackles of the host time server.

On the hyper-v management console, click on the SBS 2011 server and choose settings.  On the left hand pane under Management, click on Integrated Services and clear the check mark next to Time Synchronization then OK or Apply.  You can actually do this while the hyper-v machine is running.

Once you have done this, log onto the SBS 2011 server, run command prompt and type

w32tm /query /source

You should now see the source changed to time.windows.com or whatever other time server source you have configured.

Either method you choose will work, but I prefer the change in Integration Services to make your SBS server less dependent on its host.


Now that you have the basics of how to create a volume on an iSCSI target and mount it for use, let’s explore some reasons for doing so.

Server Storage

The simplest case I will present is a single SBS server.  There are several important data stores for SBS:

  • Exchange Server
  • SharePoint
  • Shared folders
  • LOB or other data that is used by SBS members

When you first install SBS, these are all going to be located on the OS drive.  Using the SBS console, you can migrate them to another drive location.  In the case of LOB data, which is set up independently, you no doubt can chose the drive on which to locate it.

You could start with disks installed on the server in a traditional fashion.  Maybe the drives are 500GB, 1TB, or larger drives.  Your Exchange requirements might be modest, say 15GB.  You estimate that SharePoint files are likely to grow to 20GB in the next six months to a year.  Shared folders might start at 20GB but could go up or down depending on what migrates to SharePoint, for example, and what other growth you anticipate.

You can use one drive for Exchange, one for SharePoint, one for shared folders, and one for LOB data.  But perhaps your server can’t accommodate that many drives.  And it certainly might not accommodate them as RAID 5 or 6 volumes and be independent of each other.  What are the choices?  Well, you could  use one physical disk, no RAID, and create several volumes and use different ones for different data types.  Or perhaps use several drives to create a RAID set and and allocate volumes on it.

Now that you have several volumes on your drive or drive array, sized to accommodate the data you anticipate, what happens if you start to run out of space?  If you have a partition management software tool, you could expand the size of the allocation if there is more free space on the drive(s), or shrink another partition if that were possible and then increase the size of the desired one.  Or, if you have the space available, create another larger partition and move the data to the new one.

Using iSCSI targets is similar to this approach but without the drawbacks and pitfalls of locally attached drives.  First, your storage platform is robust and will have RAID enabled drive support.  Since mountable drives are created from an available pool of space, you can start with the most reasonable size for each disk you need.  Later, you can, on the fly, create a new iSCSI target that is larger or smaller, move or migrate the data to it, disconnect the original target and then delete it.  It is far easier than partition management.

Don’t forget backups.  You can create an iSCSI target and mount it on the SBS server and then configure backups to this drive.  Need another destination?  Very simple.  You get the idea.

Virtual Machines

You probably know from reading some of my other posts I am a fan of virtual machines.  I like the idea of running SBS as a Hyper-v machine; the same box can support test machines, client machines used for remote access, special LOB servers, you name it.  In a virtual machine environment, iSCSI shines.

Start with the drive on which you store the .vhd files.  These can be on a locally attached or a iSCSI drive.  I use iSCSI because I can allocate a right-sized disk in a matter of minutes and have it available on the host server.  Once the virtual machine is created, I can allocate and attach additional iSCSI targets to meet the needs of that vm.

Consider that you might want to test some new software or application, such as a web site, SharePoint feature, or LOB application.  Create a virtual machine and allocate the disk space it needs.  If it turns out to be incorrect, or once your testing has been completed, it is a simple matter to delete the iSCSI targets and return the disk space back to the available pool.

Note a potential disaster recovery scenario.  If you were to lose the host server, the .vhd for the virtual machines would still be on the iSCSI target.  Simply use them to create a virtual machine on another host, and you are back up and running.

Testing

Admittedly, I stole some of my own thunder when talking about virtual machines, but the testing environment is perfect for iSCSI.  Just allocate a target, use it and then delete it once the testing is done.

But it is not just for server and server-level software that iSCSI is useful in testing.  Suppose you want to test from your desktop.  Guess what.  Windows 7 has the same iSCSI initiator, and you can download one for XP.  That means you can create disks, use them and subsequently delete them at the client desktop as well as at the server.

Ad Hoc Uses

I have also used iSCSI targets for quick, one time efforts.  I wanted to update the OS on a laptop for a friend, and I wanted to end up with a clean install but make sure I didn’t lose anything important.  The trouble was that my friend couldn’t tell me what was important…. So I removed the laptop drive, connected it to my desktop with a USB drive connector, copied it completely to an iSCSI target I created, put the drive back in his laptop and installed the new OS.  There were a few things to go back and retrieve, but once he was satisfied I simply deleted the drive.

I will often be called upon to change something at an installation.  I usually create an iSCSI target, do an appropriate backup (sometimes it is just copying files, other times, a more holistic backup), then make the changes.  Getting back to the original state if something goes wrong is neat and tidy; so is the deletion of the disk once I am done.

Less Common But On My Wish List

Recall from Part I that the SCSI commands to read and write data are sent over the network to the target device.  Theoretically, it doesn’t matter whether the network is local or very WAN.  Practically, it is how long it takes for the commands and data to get back and forth.

Here is where I think cloud backups might go for some types of transaction-sensitive data.  Suppose you have a database that gets updates continuously from user transactions, web traffic, etc.  If that data were stored on an iSCSI target, remember that the data and commands to read and write it travel across the network.  Now imagine that the iSCSI target machine, when it gets a write command, also sends that command with the data to another iSCSI target, a mirror, that is remote, i.e., the cloud (public or private).  The difference is that the local target can respond back to the server that the write is complete, but there are no such time constraints on the write to the cloud. The iSCSI target would have to create a queue of writes and execute them in order as they complete asynchronously to the writes it completes locally.  This is not unlike playing a log file against a database.

Because only writes need be executed across the WAN, this is a very efficient operation and with broadband speeds continuing to increase, such a scheme because a very practical continuous backup procedure.

No solution like this is commercially available that I know of, and it would not be appropriate for every application.  Nevertheless, you heard it here first if it does come to pass.

I hope this gives you a flavor of the convenience and wide range of uses that iSCSI provides. In Part III I will discuss the costs and purchasing of a unit.

 


Happy Thanksgiving.  It is snowing, and temps have been in the teens for the last four or five days.  Predicted to turn into rain and get into the 40°s today, and everyone is overjoyed about – rain?  In Seattle?  No way.

Microsoft has announced that SBS 7 will end up as SBS 2011 and is due for release in December.  I have heard from a friend of a friend who knows someone who has a friend who heard it from a barista at Starbucks who is dating a guy who used to know someone who worked at a company that is located near Redmond that December 12 is the earliest.  Don’t take this to the bank.  Microsoft’s announcement also said that OEMs wouldn’t start shipping until around February.

Here are a few other items to note.

  1. Three flavors of SBS 2007
    • Basic – Code name Aurora in the beta test.  It is an on-premise server but integrated to Exchange and SharePoint 2010 in the cloud.
    • Standard – SBS 7 in beta test and what you got in SBS 2003/2008.  On premise server and Exchange and SharePoint running on that server.
    • Premium – A second Windows 2008 R2 license.
  2. Changes from SBS 2008
    • Windows 2008 R2 as the base level OS (instead of Windows 2008)
    • Exchange 2010 instead of Exchange 2007
    • SharePoint Foundation 2010 instead of SharePoint Services 3.0
    • Basic version with cloud integration
  3. Upgrading
    • No in-place upgrade.  Migration (both old and new systems running for a while) is the only option, if you currently have SBS 2003/2008.
    • You will need a 2nd server for the migration, but it doesn’t have to be a permanent home for the new OS.

I have several opinions about what to do if you upgrade that will not only make the migration a bit easier, but in fact will give you a more powerful and flexible infrastructure afterward.

  • Establish your new, target server as a virtual machine OS.  I am definitely a fan of Microsoft’s Hyper-v technology as it is free, works well, and is pretty straightforward to use.
  • If you have a license for Windows 2008 R2 or Windows 2008 (standard or above in either case), you can install that as your base OS for the hyper-v machine.  (If you have the Premium version of SBS, then you have a license for it, provided you migrate from a server where it is already installed, if that is the case).
  • If you don’t have a license, then you can use the free version of Hyper-v Server from Microsoft.  Note that there is no GUI for this version and you will have to access most tools from a Windows 7 or 2002/R2 client by installing remote management tools.  It is somewhat straight forward, but there are a few details involving firewalls on each side, etc.
  • You can convert your existing SBS 2003/2008 server to a virtual machine once you have created a Hyper-v enabled server, but I would do that ONLY if you want to free up the server hardware it is running to use in your new SBS 2011 installation.  Otherwise, leave it where it is.
  • Install SBS 2011 as a virtual machine.  Perform the migration.

I am a fan of this because having a virtual stack of machines around is handy, very handy. If you need to test something, just create a virtual machine in a matter of minutes.  I have a handful of different virtual machines already created with different OS and configurations, and I can create a new machine from one of these right away.  I simply copy the .vhd file for whatever configuration I need to a new area or with a new name, start that machine and it’s ready to go.  When the testing is done, I simply delete the .vhd file and delete the machine from Hyper-v manager.

I am going to devote a few postings in the upcoming weeks on setting up a hyper-v stack and how to use and manage it.  Come back and check it out.

Let me end with a strong suggestion:  SBS 2011 is a rock solid product, and the new features of SharePoint Foundation alone make it worth the upgrade cost and effort. If you are still running SBS 2003, what could you possibly be waiting for?  I see lots of environments where the hardware is iffy at best, there are always issues with Exchange, and SharePoint Services 2.0 is essentially ignored.  Look, your business depends on this stuff.

Would you keep a piece of machinery around without doing anything to it for 7 or 8 years?  And unlike machinery, getting new stuff is not only much faster, better and easier to use, but costs only a fraction of what it did when you8o first bought it.  That is an investment you should easily make.

Happy Thanksgiving



If you launch Outlook and the splash screen continues to show, with the status of “loading profile,” the cause is likely to be that another copy of Outlook is still running but not visible on the task bar or under Applications on Task Manager.

You can quickly verify, and remedy, this situation by launching Task Manager, clicking on the Processes tab, and look for OUTLOOK.EXE as a running task.  If it shows up, right click on it and choose end process.  It is possible there is more than one copy running, so repeat this for all of them.

Now try starting Outlook.  It should launch successfully.

If it does, then close Outlook.  Wait a minute or so and open Task Manager again.  Check to see if Outlook is still running.  If it is, then it is not shutting down completely.

I can’t say for certain this is a definite answer, but try creating a new profile and deleting the old one.  I have seen instances of a profile being slightly corrupted that causes this behavior, but it might not be the only reason.

Do you have any other causes to share?


I have html set as my default format for email, and I often insert images (pictures) in the body of the email text rather than including them as an attachment.  When the recipients use Outlook as client, they can readily see the email as I composed it.

However, some email clients other than Outlook have a problem, though it is far less common now than it was only a few years ago.  But I sometimes get a message from someone telling me that they could not open the email attachments I sent them, even though there were embedded images and no attachments.

The fix is painless and quick.  Now when is the last time you heard that about a computer problem?

In order to get to the simple and quick fix, let me explain a feature of Outlook that you probably use all the time but don’t pay much attention to.  When you are creating a new email or forwarding one and start to type in the recipient’s name(s), Outlook displays a list of one or more previous recipients that match what you are beginning to type.  These suggestions come from a special file that Outlook maintains.  Prior to Outlook 2010, these were kept in a .nk2 file.  Outlook 2010 keeps them in files named Stream_Autocomplete*.dat.  The * is replaced by a string of numbers.  The location for these files is C:\Users\%username%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Outlook\RoamCache\.

When a recipient let you know that they can’t open the attachments and you didn’t send them anything but embedded images, the culprit is the auto-complete email address.  To fix the problem, you don’t have to know or deal with the .nk2 or the stream_autcomplete*.dat files directly.  Instead do the following:

  1. Start typing the recipient’s email address in the email.
  2. When the suggested name(s) appear, highlight the one you are going to use.
  3. Either press the DEL key or click on the X on the right side of the name to delete the entry.
  4. Make sure that the suggested name did not get put into the TO, CC or BCC field.
  5. Enter the recipient email address by typing it, using the address book, or pasting it into the appropriate field.
  6. Send the email normally.

This will correct the attachment problem and it will create a new, correct entry for future use.

Now wasn’t that easy?